Threat to Biodiversity

The biodiversity supports life. A wide varieties of life forms live together in an ecosystem which is stable and sustainable. Each species in an ecosystem contributes to make it stable and sustainable. Any changes in the survival of even a single species cause damage to the ecosystem posing threat to the biodiversity or survival of other species including human. Mostly these threats are manmade (Anthropogenic). According to International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), these activities are categorized as follows.

  1. Residential and commercial development: Construction of houses, buildings etc., for residential and commercial purposes.
  2. Farming activities: Growing crops and keeping animals.
  3. Energy production and mining: Thermal power station, hydroelectric power etc.
  4. Transportation: Construction of roads, Pollution etc.
  5. Exploitation of biological resources: Hunting or poaching of wild species both plants and animals for Foods and trade, manufacturing commercial products from plants and animals, collection of medicinal plants, Collection of fire wood from the forest etc.
  6. Human intrusion & activities: Human settlement, land occupation, village, towns, urbanization.
  7. Modification of Nature: Changing food chain, replacement of endemic species, introduction of new species or pathogens etc.

These all activities are responsible for posing threat to the biodiversity of a region.

Nature of threat

The threat refers to the condition that is responsible for causing disturbances or preventing survival of the species. The threat is recognized in the form of

  1. Biodiversity loss
  2. Destruction of habitat
  3. Introduced and invasive species
  4. Genetic pollution
  5. Overexploitation
  6. Climate change
  7. Biodiversity loss

Biodiversity loss refers to disappearance of species in their natural habitat leading to extinction. Many species disappeared from the planet due to many reasons. However, a good example of anthropogenic activity that is responsible for the biodiversity loss is ‘Extinction of the flightless bird ‘Dodo’, ‘Raphus cucullatus’ due to over hunting.

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